Analytical quality glossary
Mouillour ( 2005, p. 36) states that a credit line is a collection of guidelines for the assessment, measurement, description and benchmarking of outcomes. Only it provides a standardized means of presenting progress in terms of progress in terms of language acquisition, allowing comparisons to be made between different programs and skills, thus making it easier for students to build up credit points and/or transferring progress between programs and/or among higher education establishments.
UNESCO's definitions are: The Scottish Qualifications Authority describes credit as: the period of times an "average" individual at a certain skill set could reasonably be expected to obtain the results (SQA, 2003, p. 6). European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (EU, 2004) also defined credit as credit that is not eligible for ECTS: This is the monetary unit used to quantify students' work-load in the form of fictitious study times needed to produce specific results.
Credit(s): It is a means of measuring and acknowledging progress used by most higher educational establishments, in terms of the number of credit points at a given educational institution at a given educational institution of higher educational attainment. Also see credit levels, credit value, credit aggregation and credit transfers. Loan value: is the number of credit points at a certain performance levels, which indicates the amount and degree of difficulties of the acquired knowledge, on the basis of fictitious lessons.
Loan level: A measure of the comparative complexities, profundity and autonomous nature of teaching associated with a particular course and used in credit points. The Credit Levels Scriptor is a general description of the general features of studying at a given credit grade that serves as a point of departure for the design of degree courses. Loan facility:
Released official framework indicating the credit value associated with programs and skills and generally including credit grade descriptors. 3. New Zealand Qualification Authority (NZQA) (2009) definiert as follows : New Zealand Qualification Authority (NZQA) (2009) definiert as follows : credit : New Zealand Qualification Authority (NZQA) (2009) definiert as follows : New Zealand Qualification Authority (NZQA) (2009) definiert as follows : credit : credit New Zealand Qualification Authority (NZQA) (2009) definiert as follows : New Zealand Qualification Authority (NZQA) (2009) definiert as follows : credit : New Zealand Qualification Authority (NZQA) (2009) definiert as follows : New Zealand Qualification Authority (NZQA) (2009) definiert as follows : credit : credit wie suivgt : credit) Assigned credit to the Einheitsnormen reflects the fictitious period of study that the candidate is required to complete in order to achieve the results and achievement levels set out in these Einheitsnormen.
The fictitious study period comprises the amount of free study given in structural teaching and self-directed study and exercise, the amount of free study required to collect and supply proofs for evaluation and the amount of free study required to be evaluated in all results and settings.... South Africa Qualification Authority (SAQA, 2000, p. 9). Also specifies the crediting of credits on the â??COPY10 Lernstundenâ??.
Although Exeter University (2004) explicitly refers to the equality of education and norms, it also uses a time-based definition: This is a quantitative means of expression of the equivalent of knowledge. A credit is granted to a student in acknowledgement of proven performance of educational achievements at a certain skill levels. A credit corresponds to 10 fictitious lessons successfully completed and works on the assumption that the thresholds have been reached.
This is how the Irish Higher Education Authority describes creditworthiness: The Credit Common Accord for Wales includes an additional statement of what cannot be awarded: Credit: An accolade given to a student in appreciation of achieving certain educational results at a certain proficiency levels. The credit ing only takes place after a quality-assured performance evaluation.
For achievements above the thresholds (defined by outcome and evaluation criteria) no extra credit can be granted, although these achievements can be recognized by the allocation of grade or mark. Credit: Acceptance of participation or merit in a teaching assignment (course or program) that can be used by a beneficiary to meet the requirement for a qualification, diploma, certificate oder other official distinction.
Northeast Texas Network Consortium (NTNC, 2002) defines credit as: The credit memo is the value allocated to a course. Normally, a credit corresponds to one lesson of 50 minutes per weeks. A lot of classes have 3 credit points and get together for three 50-minute sessions per workweek. Indiana college network (ICN) (2003) and NTNC (2002) identified credit-bearing and noncredit-bearing programs using common definitions: Non-Credit: a category that usually encounters only once or only a few occasions and helps develop individuals or careers rather than being applied to a higher education qualification.
Credit: A quantitative means of expression of the equivalent of knowledge. The credit is granted to a pupil in acknowledgement of proven performance of certain educational achievements at a certain stage. Achievements at a higher credit allocation than those of â??thresholdâ may be recognized by the awarding of credits and degrees, but not by the awarding of a larger amount or a higher credit allocation than that allocated to the course or allocation.
Mouillour ( 2005, p. 34â?"39) differentiates between credit and credit point: Credit points is used in relation to the value of a complete educational program in terms of the system of credit points in terms of numbers and accounting; credit points refer to the contents of a qualifications, the acquirement of know-how, abilities and competencies, i.e. the consolidated results of educational activity that can be summarized in courseware.
The credit points are calculated on the base of a convention.....As a base for the introduction of credit points in vocational education and training we will use the smallest unit of measure for the achieved educational attainment. Guidance issued collectively by CQFW/NICATS/NUCCAT/SEEC (2001) distinguishes between credit value and credit level: The AEC ( 2004 ) relates to the credit point system:
Acceptance point system: This is a system in which the overall amount of a student's studies during the year (teaching hours plus free period of study) is given a number. However, the number of credit points won is not a yardstick for the standards attained. Students who do not complete the session will not receive credit; students who complete the session will receive all credit for the session.
Credentials can be useful in course composition as they provide a measurement of the relatively large amount of different course items. They are being used more and more to allow the recognition of education in one organisation by another. There seems to be a different significance for the Karls-Sturt-Universität, Department of Student Administration (2011); mainly the allocation of advance payments, which is similar to the accrual of credit points and the accreditation of advance payments:
Credit: A course in which a learner does not need to be enrolled, which reduces the number of courses needed to finish the course. Credit: If you have previously completed your studies, e.g. at TAFE, or have another type of Recognized Prior Learning (RPL), you may be eligible for credit for one or more courses in your course.
35 ) describes the function of a credit system: An examination of the various credit schemes in place (in higher and vocational education and training) shows the following lists of roles to be performed by a credit scheme: ¢ transfer of educational attainment within and between different VET sector schemes and between VET sector schemes, whether they be formal, non-formal or informational, which provide briding mechanism between different paths of study; accumulate and mutually recognise training/education/learning activity (modules) or skill units/programmes to a part or full skill by helping to define, assess and certify parts or full skills, regardless of when and where this has taken place;
Collaboration between educational institutions, teaching staff and students across borders; â Transparent nature of teaching process and results in relation to the level of acquisition of knowledge, abilities and competencies by individuals, the structures of vocational studies; â Mobile within training/education/learning process and occupational mobilisation through improved characterisation of overall qualification; â Flexible duration of studies, contents and courses; â Simplification of accreditation and validation process; â Simplification of accreditation and validation process; â Simplification of accreditation and validation process
Credits and HE Qualifications: CQFW/NICATS/NUCCAT/SEEC, 2001, Credits and HE Qualifications: Credit Directives for Higher education Degrees in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. ECTS usersâ Guide â?" Accumulation and transmission of credit points for lifelong learning, Commission of the EU, 2004, European Citizens' Initiative (ECTS), 2007. I: Le Mouillour, 2005, Towards greater openness to credit transfers in VET: Evaluation of the eligibility of credit points schemes for a credit system for VET (ECVET), dossier set of the Centre for the Development of Vocational Training in Europe (Cedefop); 12 Luxembourg: Publications department of the Official Journal of the Europa.
2004 Qualifications and Curriculum Authority and Learning + Skills Council (QCA /LSC) 2004, Basic Guidelines for a Performance Scope for England: Adopts definition from the Credit Common Accord for Wales issued in July 2003. Roscher, F., 2003, â??Das operational set of rules of credit systemsâ??, in Schwarz, S. and Teichler, U., Credits at German universities.
SAQA (South African Qualifications Authority), 2000, The National Qualifications Framework and Standards Setting, (Pretoria, SAQA). The University of Exeter, 2004, TQA Manual, Learning and Teaching Definitions, http://www.ex.ac.uk/admin/academic/tls/tqa/modapp1. htm Zuletzt aktualisiert am 31. August 2004.