Gap Loans are also known as

Also known as gap loans are

Like many chart terms, it can be bullish or bearish; a sudden upward move is a bullish gap, while a sudden downward move is bearish. This is also referred to as the breakaway gap. Seller loan (also referred to as deferred consideration).

Financing with Exports Loans - A Loan Gap Resolution?

Although not necessarily an available option in every case, ECF may be one way of addressing the problems currently associated with the conventional funding scheme. Whats ECFR? Exports finance is a state-controlled technology to promote production, trade and jobs in their state. Therefore, the political perspectives may influence the decision of an ECA to participate in the funding of a vessel constructed in that Member State and the selection of ECA members may differ from one Member State to another.

While they have a political role in supporting domestic industries, ECAs also have a trade role to make sure that the system does not loose cash and that a proper equilibrium is found between the two. Community funding is a type of State support to shipyards and can take various form.

Members of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) have tried to monitor and govern the funding of the EAEC through common arrangements in order to create a competitive environment for those OECD members who wish to grant State aids to their industries in this way. OECD Guidelines (known as the Consensus Agreement) offer a frame for the proper use of publicly subsidised exports credit under a gentlemen's arrangement between the contracting states.

Key elements of the Consensus on Ship Export Credits are laid down in the Sector Understanding on Export Credits for Shipments (also known as the "Ship Protocol"). Further eligibility requirements can also be defined by the ECA. How is your assistance provided? ECA assistance can take different form and can differ from State to State and is affected by the interested stakeholders and the reasons for the assistance needed.

However, the following core components of ECF finance can be found to a greater or lesser degree in all structures: The ECA bears the risks of non-payment - this can take the forms of an "insurance policy", a "buyercredit guarantee" or an "export credit" (if granted directly by the ECA itself).

Grant of interest - the ECA assumes the interest risks for the financing, either by subsidizing the interest or by a long-term low level of interest charges. CIRR is the formal interest base interest method and is based on the previous month's mean exchange prices for the respective currencies.

Irrespective of the nature of the assistance provided, it is the ECA who assumes all or part of the risks and often more than a merchant would be prepared to take, particularly under prevailing circumstances. An ECA or more in the same jurisdiction may also be engaged to form the components of the assistance; for example, one may offer an assurance and another an interest rate assistance.

Community financial assistance may give the vessel owner direct recourse to funds that would otherwise not be available. It can also allow a wider dispersion of funding resources for banking, as the Court's assistance can mitigate the effects of banking constraints on a particular business or group and also on the State ( see Basel III below).

ECA funding costs are often lower than those of a merchant banking institution, especially where a fixed-rate grant is available. The ECA usually charges a bonus or royalty for the assistance that must be included in the costs, although many financial institutions allow it to be financed by the trade credit.

According to the new Basel III recommendations, ECA-based loans are no longer riskfree. Therefore, this must be taken into consideration by the bank as ECA-based loans would be zero weight before Basel III and would therefore not influence banks' CRD. Besides the above -mentioned OECD member OECD member institutions, ECA activities are also monitored on a regular basis in other jurisdiction.

Recent reporting shows, for example, that CEXIM (China) is stepping up ECA assistance to its own owners and plans to provide financial assistance to foreign owners of vessels buying from China. While perhaps the most common type of ECA finance is for newbuildings, ECA finance can also be targeted for marine reconstruction, broadening the spectrum of exporting and thus crediting states.

Different types of EC finance continue to be important in the strategy of many ship operators, which is used by both owners and developers to keep the order backlog and launch newbuildings. This can be a very lucrative way of funding and, for some, potentially the only way of providing core funding for ongoing work.

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