Canadian scientists have created a functioning virtual brain able to do many complex tasks humans take for granted – from remembering lists to recognising number. It can even do some basic components of IQ tests.
The Semantic Pointer Architecture Unified Network – or SPAUN for short – was created by Chris Eliasmith and his team at the University of Waterloo. With its 2.5 million simulated neurons SPAUN is way ahead of the curve in terms of ability. It can see with a virtual “eye” and has a virtual “arm” that it uses to draw. This is all achieved by simulating what tasks the brain can carry out, rather than simulating the exact functioning of the brain.
Other projects, such as The Blue Brain Project (TBBP), are taking a slightly more reductionist approach by attempting to simulate every single neuron in action. In 2005, TBBP had created its first simulated nerve cell. By 2008, it was running an artificial neocortical column consisting of 10,000 simulated cells. In July of 2011, the project had grown to 1 million cells divided into 100 neocortical columns. If all goes as planned, the first human equivalent simulated brain, consisting of 100 billion cells will come online sometime around 2023 (Click here to view a TED Talk given by TBBP founder Henry Markram).
This is all amazing science but what does it mean for us? Some speculate that sometime in the future we might be able to “upload” our brains or our consciousness into non-biological brains. But if you think about it you might begin to see some of the problems with this. A copy of you – or in this case your mind – is not really you. It is a copy. You will still be you and now there will be another entity either represented digitally or in some new robotic body that will have all of your memories and experiences. Considering the differences between the biological and the electronic you, people would inevitably address each differently. You would still age, and degenerate, and eventually die while your backup copy would live on. While this may be preferable to the complete elimination of your consciousnesses it does not really fix the original problem that exist with biological death.
Now, what happens if you were to change things up a little bit. What happens if you create an artificial neuron and implant it into the brain. If this neuron is somehow effectively integrated then has it changed you in a meaningful way? What if you implant 2, 4, 6, 10, 100, artificial neurons? What if eventually you can implant so many neurons backing up the function of your normal biology that you no longer need the biology. At what point are you no longer you? If you replace neurons one by one is there a turning point? If you just add artificial neurons is there a proportional threshold that you are no longer you any more?
This raises all kinds of philosophical questions about the self. Is the person that wakes up in the morning the same as the person that fell asleep the evening before? What about when you are put under for surgery? Or in a comma? Is there a meaningful difference between the changes to the brain that occur while asleep and adding/replacing biology with artificial neurons?
Is there really a self to begin with? Who am I?
Who are you?
Tell me in the comments!